Too Fashionable to be Taken Seriously

I first learned about climate change when Mrs Thatcher raised the issue more years ago than I care to remember.  I had a woolly understanding of the concept but started reading voraciously about it and learning what I could.  I wished I had paid better attention to my physics lessons in school.  Then I decided to write these essays on climate change, now approaching three thousand in number, mostly on global warming, energy and their effects on the climate of our planet. Continue reading

Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere

I regularly look at atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration even though it is invariably bad news. in the past twelve months CO2 in the atmosphere has risen to 408.53 ppm, which is a rise of 2.53 parts per million compared with 12 months ago. It seems relatively clear to me that this is shown in the extent of sea ice in the Arctic and the extent of ice in the Antarctic, both of which are reducing and in very modest sea level rises.

I think that now it is not about reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that humans push into the air, but about removing carbon dioxide from the air. It is not about targets, which as one commentator pointed out on these posts are usually politically motivated boasts but about hard measures of which there are insufficient around.

A Very Ugly Movement

What is the point of Extinction Rebellion? In London there has been demonstrations, arrests, people chaining themselves to objects and similar stunts because Extinction Rebellion wants governments to declare a climate emergency. Extinction Rebellion proposes to persuade governments to do this by non-violent civil disobedience. The movement (and the demonstrations) have been supported by actors actresses, models and other well-known people who all believe that the democratic process has failed to deal with climate change and therefore other measures are required.  

Non-violent civil disobedience is an important tradition of protest. Henri Thoreau refused to pay a proportion of taxes that was used to finance an unjust war. Ghandi use it to bring independence and democracy to India.  Extinction Rebellion is apparently using civil disobedience to achieve three demands:

  1. Governments around the world tell the truth about climate change; this demand is impossible to meet because what is the truth about a topic that is probably the most complex (scientifically) known to humanity?  I expect what Extinction Rebellion really mean is that governments should adopt what Extinction Rebellion states is the truth.
  • Governments must act now to halt biodiversity loss and reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2025. There is no hint of how governments are to do this. Does anyone know how this can be achieved short of wiping out, directly or indirectly, most of humanity?
  • Governments must create and be led by the decisions of a Citizens Assembly on climate change and ecological justice. I find this demand rather chilling and very frightening.  This reminds me of the justification of all tyrants who have displaces the democratic process. Fulfilment of this demand would mean denying the democratic process and giving power over our lives to Citizens Assemblies, no doubt made up of members of Extinction Rebellion.

Extinction Rebellion seems a very ugly movement.


It is now officially recognised throughout the developed world that we must do something about climate change.

Farmers in the Netherlands have been protesting because, as I understand it, they are blamed for most of the Dutch nitrous oxide emissions and they believe there is a threat to their livelihoods fearing there are plans to cut pig, beef and chicken production by half for environmental reasons. These threats are not made by the Dutch Government but by opposition parties anxious to be seem to do something about climate change; such is the sensitivity of people in the climate change debate that traffic was badly disrupted by the tractors (which in turn must have created excess emissions) that the farmers took to the street protesting about the possibility of their incomes being slashed in the name of climate change. Climate change is serious, as all farmers know and have experienced, but when it comes to doing something about it “not me” is the cry.

It is a feature of modern life that almost everyone agrees that climate change is a threat and should be mitigated in some way, but almost everyone thinks that the mitigation should be at the cost of somebody else. “Not me!” Blame China for climate change, blame India, blame the USA, blame Brazil, blame the government, blame industry, blame capitalism, blame socialism, blame the wealthy, blame the poor, blame whoever, but don’t blame me.

Wealthy people who fly around in private jets and lead lifestyles that create far more emissions than the average person in their community feel qualified to lecture us on the dangers of climate change. “Someone should do something about it, but not me” is the message, “not me”.

“Not me” has become the real response to climate change by humanity, and such a response is inadequate, as humanity will learn to its cost.

If you cannot Beat it, live with it

A wind travelling at 185 miles an hour (about 300kph) is a very strong wind indeed. Humans do not build settlements where such winds are even a remote a possibility, or so we thought until Hurricane Dorian devastated the North Bahamas. Thousands of homes have been destroyed or damaged severely. Only seven people have died, thanks to the ability of humans to predict the impact of Hurricane Dorian and the efforts of the local government to warn and prepare people for this apocalypse.

Hurricanes start when there is warm water (around and above 28 Celsius) and warm air.

Warm air from the ocean surface begins to rise rapidly. The air is naturally moist, coming from the ocean. When the warm air meets cooler air as it rises the warm moist air condenses and forms storm clouds and drops of rain. The condensation releases heat, which warms the cool air above the warm air, causing it to rise to bring more warm, moist air from the ocean .

The warm, moist air is drawn into a developing storm and more heat is transferred from the surface of the ocean to the atmosphere. This continuing heat exchange creates a wind pattern that spirals violently around a relatively calm center and so a hurricane is born.

The important word in this explanation is “warm”. The air is warmed, the oceans are warmed and this begets hurricanes.

Hurricanes have always been with those who live where the air is warmed and the sea is warmed but in the last century or more the sea has been warming and so has the air more than usual because the heat that the planet naturally receives cannot escape or dissipate into space as it had done for centuries because now the earth has a blanket of insulation, made up of an increasing thick layer carbon dioxide, deposited by kind permission of humanity and its activities.

I do not blame global warming for the creation of Hurricane Dorian – that would be a far too simplistic approach, but I do blame human activities for making hurricanes like Dorian (the most violent in recorded history in the Bahamas) more likely.

It is probably too late to reverse global warming or do much about climate change except to possibly try to slow it down. Humanity, it is clear to me, does not have the appetite to do what must be done to reverse or slow down climate change. It will probably have the appetite to build better and stronger protection against extreme weather events such as hurricanes and flooding. If you can’t beat it, live with it.

Today’s Weather will be Tomorrow’s Climate

When I started writing essays about the environment, many years ago, I was always careful to point out the difference between climate and weather. Climate, like class in a sports person, is permanent. Weather is akin to form, a temporary phenomenon. As I write these words the United Kingdom is experiencing its hottest July ever recorded and will probably, before the day is out enjoy or suffer (as the case may be) its highest recorded temperature ever. Continue reading

Must Try Harder

As I get older so the proportion of atmospheric carbon dioxide, like my age, increases. the ESRL Global Monitoring Division at Muana Loa, Hawaii,  reports atmospheric carbon dioxide is now at 414.66 parts per million compared with 411.24 ppm just a year ago in May 2018.

It is very sad to have to report this, Continue reading

Climate Change Protests

Like many Londoners I have been inconvenienced by the climate change protestors. I am sure that they do not care much and would hold that wasting a few hours of my time or causing me to walk a few extra miles is nothing compared to the threat to humanity and to all who live on the earth that climate change will bring. Continue reading

Trends In Carbon Dioxide Emissions

The latest measurements from the Earth System Research Laboratory show that in November 2018 the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide was 408.02 ppm compare with the November 2017 measurement which was  405.12 ppm. There are many figures that try to show carbon dioxide emissions but most of these rely on estimates, albeit highly scholarly estimates. The ESRL actually measures atmospheric content of carbon dioxide and using its measurements we can establish that the trend is continuing for there to be higher and higher proportions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, notwithstanding of all humanity’s rather futile attempts to lower carbon dioxide emissions by carbon trading schemes, treaties, and the like.

We are beginning, I believe, to see the results of the higher concentrations of CO2 in our weather; the climate in many places is slowly and surely changing although we do not yet know if the changes will be benign or malignant. It is unlikely that they will produce, on the whole, more benign weather, as traditional people have settled in places where the weather is kind and predictable and built in those places to take account of those conditions, and not more severe conditions.

The Earth System Research Laboratory will not, in the short term at least, be able to provide any more measurements about global CO2 concentrations, due to the deadlock between the US President and Congress which has led to a partial government shutdown. The US is at odds with itself about building a wall on its border with Mexico ostensibly to prevent unlawful immigration. Last Summer, the President suggested that the wall, when built, might be covered in solar panels generating electricity and providing an income to offset a small part of the cost of wall building. We have not heard too much of any development of this idea.

Some calculations indicate that the electricity generated could power 220,000 homes, although no allowance in these calculations seems to have been made of the intermittent nature of the electricity generated.

Climate Change

I have not written an essay on these pages for many months but I have been shaken out of my indolence by being reminded from several quarters about the importance of designing and implementing strategies to cope with Climate Change. Continue reading